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Autumn 2018, Vol. 26 No. 3

Hong Kong J. Dermatol. Venereol. (2018) 26, 113-121


Review Article

Approach to pigmented skin disorders in children

兒童色素性皮膚病的診斷方法

YC Giam 唐玉琴

Abstract

Pigmented problems in children covers a wide area, and a simple approach may be to divide them into hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation. Understanding the biology of the melanocyte pigment and the mechanisms allow one to diagnose the hypopigmented ones, The hyperpigmented problems are more complex and causal factors are many, some follows pigment patterns, e.g. lentigines, café au lait macules, some functions like the xerodermas and many are gene mutations like incontinentia pigmenti. Also included are acquired factors and environmental factors. Most of these childhood lesions are of cosmetic concern and may not need treatment. However, other organ systems may be involved in syndromes. Therefore other associated features in the clinical presentation play an important role in the diagnosis.

兒童色素沉著問題涉及範圍廣泛,簡單的處理方法可先將其分為色素減退或色素沉著過度兩大類。對黑色素細胞色素的生物學和機制的了解,可幫助我們去診斷色素減退疾病。而色素沉著問題則較複雜,因果因素繁多:有些遵循色素模式(例如黑痣、咖啡牛奶斑)、一些為功能問題仿如乾皮病,另許多是像色素失調症那樣的基因突變。除此,還包括獲得性因素和環境因素。這些兒童期病變大部分都只限於美容問題,一般不需要治療。然而,要留意某些綜合徵可能會涉及其他器官系統。因此,臨床表現中的其他相關特徵在診斷中起著重要作用。

Keywords: Biology of melanocytes, Genetics, Hyperpigmentation, Hypopigmentation, Pigmentary disorders

關鍵詞: 黑素細胞生物學、遺傳學、色素沉著過度、色素減退、色素異常