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Winter 2017, Vol. 25 No. 4

Hong Kong J. Dermatol. Venereol. (2017) 25, 171-177


Review Article

Pathophysiology of arsenic-induced adverse health effects

砷引致的不良健康影響的病理生理學

CH Lee 李志宏

Abstract

Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with cancers of lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin, as well as vascular diseases, infections, and neurological abnormalities. Arsenic has been declared as a class I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Skin cancers are the most common arsenical cancers and usually herald the development of other internal cancers. Although the exact mechanisms of actions of arsenic inside the cells remain to be clarified, the histological changes in arsenical skin cancers and mechanistic studies suggest that aberrant differentiation, proliferation, abnormal apoptosis, dysregulated immune responses, and abnormal mitochondrial homeostasis contribute to the arsenic carcinogenesis. After a brief introduction to arsenic, this review summarises the potential mechanisms involved in the arsenic-induced adverse health effects. Such information may provide further clues to tackling the molecular mechanisms for arsenic carcinogenesis and other adverse health effects.

慢性砷暴露不止與肺癌、膀胱癌、腎癌、肝癌和皮膚癌,還與血管疾病、感染和神經系統異常有著關聯。砷被國際癌症研究機構宣佈為第一類致癌物。皮膚癌是最常見的砷癌,通常較其他體內癌症早發生。雖然細胞內砷的確切作用機制仍有待闡明,但從砷的皮膚癌組織學變化和機制研究顯示了砷的致癌機轉建基於細胞異常分化、增殖、異常凋亡、免疫反應失調和線粒體平衡異常有關。在簡要介紹砷後,本綜述總結了涉及砷引起的不良健康影響的潛在機制。這些資訊可提供進一步線索來阻斷砷致癌機轉及其他不良健康影響的分子機制。

Keywords: Arsenic carcinogenesis, health hazards, skin cancer

關鍵詞: 砷致癌機轉、健康危害、皮膚癌